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The aims of this project were: to explore the usefulness of the typology of rule-related behaviours specified by Reason, Parker and Lawton (1998); to collect information on the reaction of medical staff to the advent of proceduralisation as a way of managing risk in the health service; to assess the differential impact of proceduralisation on a group specifically educated in the exercise of professional judgement (doctors), and a group with more highly prescribed working practices (nurses); to assess the effects of proceduralisation in the health service on public perceptions of risk and responsibility; to make a contribution to risk management policy in the health service.

Main Topics/Subject Category
Compliance with a rule, violation of a rule, and improvisation (where no rule exists). Each questionnaire included three compliance, three violation and three improvisation items. he dataset includes judgement of appropriateness, likelihood of challenge, likelihood of reporting and risk, for each of the nine scenarios. Respondents were also asked to assign responsibility for the outcome.
England, United Kingdom, attitudes, clinical protocols, health professionals, health services, midwives, nurses, physicians, redress of grievances, responsibility, risk
Identifier Variables
NHS trust
Economic/Subject Categories
Area of Health System
Primary care, Secondary care
Data Available
Socio-economic, Demographic
Data collecting organization (s)
University of Manchester. Department of Psychology
Data Type
Survey (cross-sectional)
Coverage (date of field work)
Unit of Analysis

The medical sample is composed of health care professionals (nurses, doctors and midwives) working in the fields of anaesthetics, surgery or obstetrics from three NHS trusts in England in 1998 (the trusts are deliberately not named to guarantee anonymity). The public sample is composed of members of the general public of the United Kingdom aged 18 years and over in 1998. sample size: 311 (obtained) Medical professionals and 350 (obtained) General public

ESDS Access and Preservation, UK Data Archive
Conditions of Access
Free registration access
Lawton R and Parker D. Clinical protocols and risk management in the NHS: the patient's perspective. Risk, Decision and Policy 1998; 3: 199-211