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AIMS: To develop tables that report the life expectancy associated with levels of major modifiable risk factors for patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A set of tables reporting life-expectancy stratified by age-sex groups for combinations of modifiable risk was constructed based on predictions from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Outcomes Model. This model is based on a system of parametric proportional hazards risk equations for estimating mortality and vascular complications of diabetes that have been estimated from 3642 patients from the UKPDS. The tables show substantial potential gains in life expectancy within every age group from modifying major risk factors. The estimated life expectancy of men at age of 55 years with type 2 diabetes, 5 years after diagnosis, varies between 13.2 years for a patient who smokes, has systolic blood pressure of 180 mmHg, a total:HDL cholesterol ratio of 8, and HbA(1c) of 10%, and 21.1 years for a non-smoker with SBP of 120 mmHg, total/HDL ratio of 4, and HbA(1c) of 6%. CONCLUSION: Life expectancy tables provide a potentially useful tool of conveying prognostic information to people with type 2 diabetes and suggest substantial scope for increasing longevity by improving modifiable risk factors.

Original publication





Eur Heart J

Publication Date





834 - 839


Aged, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Diabetic Angiopathies, Female, Health Status, Health Surveys, Humans, Life Expectancy, Male, Middle Aged, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, United Kingdom