Simulating the impact of targeting lower systolic blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol levels on type 2 diabetes complication rates.
Mostafa SA., Coleman RL., Agbaje OF., Gray AM., Holman RR., Bethel MA.
AIMS: There are few data available on the incremental benefits of risk factor modification in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We simulated the potential benefits of achieving lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) and LDL-cholesterol targets. METHODS: We used the UKPDS Outcomes Model v2.0 to estimate 10-year event rates for complications using baseline data from 5717 participants with T2DM in the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin Study. All risk factor values were held constant over 10 years. In separate analyses, different levels of SBP between 160 and 120 mm Hg and LDL-cholesterol between 5.0 and 1.0 mmol/l were imposed on the cohort. Cumulative relative risk reductions (CRRR) at each 10 mm Hg and 1.0 mmol/l decrements respectively were compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: CRRRs for each 10 mm Hg SBP decrement from 160 mm Hg were 2.2%, 4.5%, 7.0% and 10.0% for myocardial infarction (MI); 12.5%, 24.8%, 35.6% and 44.9% for stroke; 5.4%, 10.9%, 16.2% and 20.9% for blindness; 7.4%, 14.7%, 21.6% and 27.4% for amputation, respectively. CRRRs for each 1.0 mmol/l LDL-cholesterol decrement from 5.0 mmol/l were 16.9%, 30.8%, 41.2% & 51.0% for MI; 9.2%, 19.7%, 29.6% & 38.8% for stroke (p < 0.001 in all cases). CONCLUSIONS: These simulated outcomes illustrate the potential benefits of targeting progressively lower SBP and LDL-cholesterol values.