Severe hypoglycemia and mortality after cardiovascular events for type 1 diabetic patients in Sweden.
Lung TWC., Petrie D., Herman WH., Palmer AJ., Svensson A-M., Eliasson B., Clarke PM.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether previous severe hypoglycemic events were associated with the risk of all-cause mortality after major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction [MI] or stroke) in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study is based on data from the Swedish National Diabetes Register linked to patient-level hospital records, prescription data, and death records. We selected patients with type 1 diabetes who visited a clinic during 2002-2010 and experienced a major cardiovascular complication after their clinic visit. We estimated a two-part model for all-cause mortality after a major cardiovascular event: logistic regression for death within the first month and a Cox proportional hazards model conditional on 1-month survival. At age 60 years, 5-year cumulative mortality risk was estimated from the models for patients with and without prior diabetes complications. RESULTS: A total of 1,839 patients experienced major cardiovascular events, of whom 403 had previously experienced severe hypoglycemic events and 703 died within our study period. A prior hypoglycemic event was associated with a significant increase in mortality after a cardiovascular event, with hazard ratios estimated at 1.79 (95% CI 1.37-2.35) within the first month and 1.25 (95% CI 1.02-1.53) after 1 month. Patients with prior hypoglycemia had an estimated 5-year cumulative mortality risk of 52.4% (95% CI 45.3-59.5) and 39.8% (95% CI 33.4-46.3) for MI and stroke, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We have found evidence that patients with type 1 diabetes in Sweden with prior severe hypoglycemic events have increased risk of mortality after a cardiovascular event.